Course Contents


1st Semester Courses

MTH108 Applied Calculus 3 Credit Hours
Introduction to Functions:

Mathematical and physical meaning of functions, graphs of various functions, types of functions.

Introduction to Limits:

Theorems of limits and their applications to functions, right hand and left hand limits, continuous and discontinuous functions and their applications, evaluation of limits using L'Hopital's rule, indeterminate forms.


Introduction to derivatives, geometrical and physical meaning of derivatives, partial derivatives and their geometric significance, application problems (rate of change, marginal analysis).

Higher Derivatives:

Leibnitz theorem, Rolle's theorem, mean value theorem, taylors and maclaurins series, indeterminate forms.

Application of Derivatives:

Asymptotes, tangents and normal, curvature and radius of curvature, differentials with application.

Application of Partial Derivatives:

Euler's theorem, total differentials, maxima and minima of function of two variables.

Integral Calculus:

Methods of integration by substitution and by parts, integration of rational and irrational algebraic functions, definite integrals, improper integrals, gamma and beta functions, reduction formulae.

Application of Integral Calculus:

Cost function from marginal cost, rocket flights, area under curve.

Vector Calculus:

Vector differentiation and vector integration with their physical interpretation and applications, operator, gradient, divergence and curl with their application.

Recommended Books
  1. Brief Calculus and its Applications - Daniel Dale Benice (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0395824648 or ISBN-13: 978-0395824641)
  2. Applied Calculus - Raymond F. Coughlin (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 020506910X or ISBN-13: 978-0205069101)
  3. Calculus with Analytical Geometry - S. M. Yousuf, Muhammad Amin (7th Edition)
Sample Question Paper
  1. May 25, 2014
EL115 Applied Physics 3 Credit Hours

Physical foundation of electric circuits, electric current, electric charge, coulomb's law, electric field and intensity, electric potential, electromotive force (voltage), electric current, resistance, conventional current, AC signals (average and RMS values), electric and magnetic circuits, ohm's law.

Resistive Network:

Simple resistive circuits (series and parallel), kirchhoff law, voltage-divider rule, current-divider rule, network theorems (DC analysis), RC and RL circuits, capacitance and capacitors, inductors and inductance, alternating current fundamentals, AC waveform, period and frequency, radians and angular frequency, peak and instantaneous values, average and effective values, AC voltage and current in capacitors and inductors, average power.

Magnetic Circuits and Transformers:

Magnetism, magnetic fields, magnetic effects of electric current, magnetic circuit concepts, magnetization curves, characteristics of magnetic materials, faraday's and lenz's law, ampere's law and its applications, eddy currents, inductance, induced current and their applications (transformers, generators etc.)

Recommended Books
  1. University Physics - Hugh D. Young, Roger A. Freedman (13th Edition, ISBN-10: 0321696891 or ISBN-13: 978-0321696892)
  2. Physics - David Halliday, Robert Resnick, Kenneth S. Krane (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0471804584 or ISBN-13: 978-0471804581)
  3. Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis - J. David Irwin, Robert M. Nelms (11th Edition, ISBN-10: 111853929X or ISBN-13: 978-1118539293)
  4. Hughes Electrical and Electronic Technology - Edward Hughes (11th Edition, ISBN-10: 0273755102 or ISBN-13: 978-0273755104)
ENG111 Functional English 3 Credit Hours

Interactive reading, apply the skills of surveying skimming, scanning and detailed reading and identify topic sentence.


Audience related writing, composition of sentences, paragraph, short descriptive writing, precis and letter and application, identify contextual clues with the help of cohesive devices.


Collect gist and important points from a listening text or any other oral source viz. Lecture, speech or conversation.


Taking part in different real life situations, answer question, argue and explain one’s point of view, ask for information-turn taking techniques and presentation skills.


Mechanics of english language, punctuation, vocabulary, conversion of words, tenses and sentence structure.

Recommended Books
  1. A Practical English Grammar: Exercises 1 (Bk. 1) - Audrey Thomson, Agnes Martinet (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0194313433 or ISBN-13: 978-0194313438)
  2. Academic Writing Course (Collins study skills in English) - R.R. Jordan (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0003700046 or ISBN-13: 978-0003700046)
  3. Listening Comprehension and Note Taking Course (Collins study skills in English) - K. James, R. R. Jordan, A. J. Matthews (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0003700011 or ISBN-13: 978-0003700015)
  4. A New English Course: An Approach to GCSE English Language for Individual Study of Class Use - Rhodri Jones (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0435105019)
  5. Axelrod and Cooper's Concise Guide to Writing - Rise B. Axelrod, Charles R. Cooper (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0312668902 or ISBN-13: 978-0312668907)
  6. English for Undergraduates - T. A. Kirkpatrick, D. L. Kirkpatric, D. H. Howe (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0195472195 or ISBN-13: 978-0195472196)
  7. Essential Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Elementary Learners of English - Raymond Murphy (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 1107480558 or ISBN-13: 978-1107480551)
  8. How To Write Better English (Penguin Writers' Guides) - Robert Allen (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0141016760 or ISBN-13: 978-0141016764)
  9. Oxford Practice Grammar: With Answers - John Eastwood (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0194313697 or ISBN-13: 978-0194313698)
CS103 Introduction to Programming 3 Credit Hours
Overview and Introduction:

Overview of programming, background, history and context, programming languages, programming environment, compilers, the edit-compile-link-execute model, portability, programming style and conventions, hand-execution of simple programs, introduction to programs and software, system software, application software, operating systems, programming languages, compilation and interpretation, problem specification, algorithms, flow chart, pseudo code. introduction to various operating systems (windows and SUN Solaris).

Programming techniques, data types and declaration, header file and linkage, variables and constants, arrays, input/output, termination, remark, control structures, branching, conditional structures, repetition and loops, basic library functions

Lab Outline:

- Programming: coding, compilation, execution and debugging of simple C programs, implementation of simple control structures, implementation of functions, implementation of different function styles, input/output, loops, conditional branching, arrays, multidimensional arrays, array as function arguments, strings, null character, string functions. pointer variable, returning multiple values from functions, pointers and arrays, pointers arithmetic, pointers and strings, double indirection.

- Working with Windows and SUN Solaris, assembling a computer.

Recommended Books
  1. Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computers and Communications - Brian Williams and Stacey Sawyer (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0072260718 or ISBN-13: 978-0072260717)
  2. Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance - William Stallings (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131856448 or ISBN-13: 978-0131856448)
  3. Object-Oriented Programming in C++ - Robert Lafore (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0672323087 or ISBN-13: 978-0672323089)
  4. Understanding Pointers in C - Yashavant Kanetkar (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 8176563587 or ISBN-13: 978-8176563581)
  5. A Practical Guide to Solaris - Mark G. Sobell (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 020189548X or ISBN-13: 078-5342895483)
Sample Question Paper
  1. May 20, 2014
SS125 Professional Ethics 2 Credit Hours
An Overview of Professional Ethics:

Professional ethics defined, social responsibility and business ethics, development of business/professional ethics, framework for studying business ethics.

Ethical Issues in Business:

Foundation of ethical conflict, classifications of ethical issues, ethical issues related to participants and functional areas of business, recognizing an ethical issue.

Social Responsibility:

Economic dimension, legal dimension, ethical dimension and philanthropic dimension.

Ethical Decision-Making Framework:

Ethical issue intensity, individual factors, stages of cognitive moral development, corporate culture, significant others, opportunity, business ethics evaluations and intensions, using the ethical decision-making framework to improve ethical decisions.

How the Organization Influences Ethical Decision-Making:

Organizational structure and business ethics, role of corporate culture in ethical decision-making, group dimension of organization structure and culture, implications of organizational relationship for ethical decisions.

Development of an Effective Ethics Program:

An effective ethical compliance, program and codes of ethics and compliance standards, manager's responsibility, delegation of authority, effective communication of ethical standards, establishing system to monitor, audit and enforce ethical standards.

Recommended Books
  1. Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases - O. C. Ferrell, John Fraedrich, Linda Ferrell (9th Edition, ISBN-10: 1111825165 or ISBN-13: 978-1111825164)
Sample Question Paper
  1. May 27, 2010

2nd Semester Courses

ES112 Basic Electronics 3 Credit Hours
Brief Introduction:

Electronics, network theorems.

Introduction to Diodes:

Semiconductor diodes, forward and reverse characteristics of diode, types of diodes, equivalent circuits of diodes, applications of diodes.

Bipolar Junction Transistors:

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), transistor operation, types of transistor, transistor biasing configurations, DC and AC analysis of BJT.

Field Effect Transistors:

Field Effect Transistor (FET), FET biasing and configuration techniques, DC and AC analysis of FET.

Lab Outline:

The emphasis is first on understanding the characteristics of diodes and transistors. Based on this understanding students are required to construct more complex circuits such as rectifier circuits and power supplies.

- Diode: Data sheet reading, analyzing diode characteristics on a curve tracer, finding a defective diode among a batch of non-defective diodes, various kinds of diode and their uses, and drawing of symbols.

- Transistor: Determining type (N and P) of an unknown bipolar transistor, labeling leads of an unknown transistor, analyzing transistor characteristics on a curve tracer, finding a defective transistor among a batch of non-defective transistors, various kinds of transistors and their uses, and drawing of symbols.

- Simulation of Basic Electronic Circuits using PSPICE

Recommended Books
  1. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory - Robert L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky (10th Edition, ISBN-10: 0135026490 or ISBN-13: 978-0135026496)
  2. Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits: Electron Flow Version - Robert T. Paynter (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131716395 or ISBN-13: 978-0131716391)
  3. A Practical Book on Basic Electronics - Qurban A. Memon, Irfan A. Halepoto (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 9698680144)
  4. The First Practical Book on Electronic Workshop - B. S. Chowdhry and Ahsan Ursani (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 9698680039)
CS121 Object Oriented Programming 3 Credit Hours

Procedural versus object oriented programming languages, object oriented design strategy and problem solving, pointers, file handling, objects and classes, member functions, public and private members, dynamic memory management, constructors and destructors, templates, object encapsulation, derived classes, class hierarchies, inheritance and polymorphism, operator overloading, stream class, practical design through object oriented programming.

Lab Outline:

Object oriented programming environment, implementation of object oriented programs: classes, methods, objects, abstract classes and inheritance, overloading and overriding, class aggregation, implementation of polymorphism, use of constructors and destructors, memory management, testing and debugging.

Recommended Books
  1. Object-Oriented Programming in C++ - Robert Lafore (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0672323087 or ISBN-13: 978-0672323089)
  2. Effective Java - Joshua Bloch (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0321356683 or ISBN-13: 860-1300201986)
  3. Python 3 Object-Oriented Programming - Dusty Phillips (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 1784398780 or ISBN-13: 978-1784398781)
  4. Fundamentals of Data Structures in C++ - Ellis Horowitz, Sartaj Sahni, Dinesh Mehta (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0929306376 or ISBN-13: 978-0929306377)
SS111 Islamic Studies/Ethics 2 Credit Hours
Quran and Uloom-ul-Quran:

Surah al-Hujurat and Surah al-Furqan cover all topics related to the ethical values of islamic society including taqwa, simplicity, lawful earning, social justice, rights of parents, elders, neighbors, fear of Allah and truthfulness, excellence of Holy Quran, history of collection and compilation of Holy Quran.

Basic Beliefs of Islam:

Tauheed, its importance, effects on the life of believer, shirk and its types. Prophethood, its need and necessities, characteristics and finality of prophethood. Concept on life hereafter. Jihad and its types.

Life history of Holy Prophet Muhammad:

Life history at makkah (before propehthood). Life history at makkah (after propehthood). Life history at madina (including brotherhood, charter of madina, victory of makkah and last sermon of holy prophet Muhammad. Importance of hadith and sunnah. Ten selected ahadiths.

Fundamentals of Islam:

Prayer, its importance, pre-conditions, obligations and effects. Zakat, its aims and objectives, requirements, legal recipients, nisab and benefits. Fasting, its philosophy, requirements and benefits. pilgrimage, requirements, types, obligations, procedure and benefits.

Islam and Science:

Quran and science, importance of science and technology in islam, historical contribution of Islam and Muslims in the development of science. Verses of Holy Quran that cover different fields of science e.g. social, management and natural science.


- ISLAM: Introduction, role of beliefs and arkans of Islam in character building, ethical values including brotherhood, equality, liberty, tolerance, social justice, rights of non-muslim, effects of corruption and respect of law.

- HINDUISM: Introduction, doctrines, religious books, concept of re-birth, celebration days, cast systems, trimurti, ethical teaching.

- BUDHISM: Introduction, doctrines, eight nobel paths of buddha, critical study of renunciation of material and wordly life.

- CHRISTIANITY: Introduction, doctrines, religious books, human honor, self reforms, celebration days and ethical teaching.

- JUDAISM: Introduction, doctrines, religious books, ethical values, ten commandments of prophet Moses.

Recommended Books
  1. Islam: The Universal Religion - A. A. Umrani (1st Edition, 1994)
  2. Sirat-e-Mustaqeem - A. Q. Natiq (1st Edition, 1992)
  3. Islam aur Hamari Zindagi - S. M. Saeed (1st Edition, 1988)
  4. Quran Science and Muslims - M. Shabudden (1st Edition, 2000)
  5. A Comparative Study of the Religions of Today - Mohammed Ali Muhiyaddin (1st Edition)
  6. Comparative Study of Religions - A. Rasheed (1st Edition, 2001)
  7. Ikhlaqiyat Mazahib-e-Aalam ki Nazar Main - Aadil Faraz (1st Edition, 2002)
  8. Mazahib-e-Aalam jo Taqabili Jaezo - M. Hashim Channa (1st Edition, 1988)
TL112 Introduction to Simulation Tools 1 Credit Hour
Introduction to Simulation:

- What is simulation, objectives of simulation, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, areas of application, steps in a simulation study
- Terminologies (state variable, entities, attributes, activity, event, endogenous, exogenous, continuous-time and discrete-time model, continuous-state and discrete-state models, deterministic and probabilistic models, static and dynamic models, linear and nonlinear models, open and closed models, stable and unstable models)
- Common mistakes in simulations (inappropriate level of detail, improper language, unverified model, invalid model, improperly handled initial condition, too short simulations, poor random-number generator, improper selection of seed)
- Types of Simulation (Monte-Carlo simulation, Trace-Driven simulation, Discrete-Event Simulation)

Simulation Tools:

- Introduction and familiarization of Matlab/Simulink environment
(loops, functions, plotting, and array manipulation using Matlab; basic mathematical, circuit analysis, and related examples using Simulink)
- Introduction and familiarization of GNU Octave environment
(basic mathematical operation and plotting using GNU Octave)
- Installation and familiarization of OrCAD EE (PSpice) Designer environment
(design of simple circuits and their analysis using PSpice)
- Installation and familiarization of Quite Universal Circuit Simulator (Qucs)
(design of simple circuits and their analysis using Qucs)
- Installation and familiarization of OMNeT++/NS-3
(demonstration of simple example using OMNeT++/NS-3)
- Installation and familiarization of Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition
(demonstration of simple example using Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition)

  1. MATLAB and Simulink -
  2. GNU Octave -
  3. OrCAD PSpice Designer -
  4. Quite Universal Circuit Simulator (Qucs) -
  5. OMNeT++ -
  6. NS-3 -
  7. OPNET/Riverbed Modeler -
Recommended Books
  1. Handbook of Simulation: Principles, Methodology, Advances, Applications, and Practice - Jerry Banks (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0471134031 or ISBN-13: 978-0471134039)
  2. The Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis: Techniques for Experimental Design, Measurement, Simulation, and Modeling - Raj Jain (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0471503363 or ISBN-13: 978-0471503361)
  3. Introduction to Matlab 7 for Engineers - William J. Palm III, William Palm (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0072922427 or ISBN-13: 978-0072922424)
  4. Matlab: A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving - Stormy Attaway (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0124058760 or ISBN-13: 978-0124058767)
  5. A Concise Introduction to Matlab - William Palm III (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0073385832 or ISBN-13: 978-0073385839)
  6. Spice: A Guide to Circuit Simulation and Analysis using PSPICE - Paul W. Tuinenga (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0134360494 or ISBN-13: 978-0134360492)
  7. The SPICE Book - Andrei Vladimirescu (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0471609269 or ISBN-13: 978-0471609261)
MTH112 Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry 3 Credit Hours
Introductions to Matrices and Elementary Row Operations:

Brief introduction of matrices, types of matrices, introduction to elementary row operations, echelon and reduced echelon forms, rank of a matrix, inverse of a matrix using elementary row operations.

System of Linear Equations:

System of non-homogeneous and homogeneous linear equations, gaussian elimination method, gauss jordan method, consistence criterion for solution of homogeneous and non-homogeneous system of linear equations, application of system of linear equations.


Introduction to determinants, properties of determinants of order n, rank of a matrix by using determinants.

Analytic Geometry of 3-Dimensions:

Introduction, coordinates in R3


Coordination of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio, straight line, in R3, vector form of a straight line, parametric equations of a straight line, equation of a straight line in symmetric form, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two straight lines, distance of a point from a line.


Equation of a plane, angle between two planes, intersection of two planes, a plane and a straight line, skew lines, cylindrical and spherical coordinates.


General equation of sphere, latitude and longitude directions, direction of Qibla.

Multiple Integrals:

Evaluation of double and triple integrals in cartesian and polar coordinates.

Recommended Books
  1. Brief Calculus and its Applications - Daniel Dale Benice (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0395824648 or ISBN-13: 978-0395824641)
  2. Applied Calculus with Linear Programming for Business, Economics, Life Sciences and Social Sciences - Raymond A. Barnett (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 0536024499 or ISBN-13: 978-0536024497)
  3. Calculus with Analytical Geometry - S. M. Yousuf, Muhammad Amin (7th Edition)
  4. Mathematical Methods - S. M. Yousuf, Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Amin (2nd Edition)
PS106 Pakistan Studies 2 Credit Hours

The course is designed to acquaint the students with the rationale of the creation of Pakistan. It deals in detail with the salient aspects of pakistan movement, focusing on the main objectives of national life. The course moves further to give a broader perspective of the social, political, constitutional, economic and geographical aspect of pakistan's endeavors to develop and progress in the contemporary world. For this purpose, the main strands of pakistan's foreign policy are also included.


Evolution of muslim society in the sub-continent, role of hazrat mujadid alf-sani and shah waliullah, war of independence 1857 and its main causes, aligarh movement and its achievements, two nation theory and ideology of pakistan in the light of the sayings of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, aligarh movement and its achievements, role of religious and educational institutions in promoting process of education among the muslims, formation of indian national congress 1885 and its role, establishment of all india muslim league 1906 and its achievements, khilafat movement, its background and causes of its failure, allahabad address 1930 and its importance in creation of pakistan, elections of 1937 and role of congress ministries, lahore resolution 1940, its effects on the muslims of south asia, elections of 1946 and transfer of power, the problems faced by pakistan at her emergence, objectives resolution 1949, main features of the constitutions 1956, 1962 and 1973 and their islamic provisions, the causes of separation of east pakistan, foreign policy of pakistan and its determinants, importance of Pakistan relations with USA and China, Pakistan's role in regional and international organisation. UNO, World Bank, IMF, OIC, SAARC and ECO, Pakistan's relations with neighboring countries, war against terrorism and its impact on pakistan, human right in pakistan and causes of their violation, natural sources of pakistan.

Recommended Books
  1. A Short History of Pakistan - Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 9694040086)
  2. History of Pakistan - Rafiullah Shehab (1st Edition, 1989)
  3. Our Freedom Fighters, 1562-1947: Twenty-one Great Lives - G. Allana (1st Edition, 1976)
  4. The Making of Pakistan: A Study in Nationalism - K. K. Aziz (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 969350870X or ISBN-13: 978-9693508703)
  5. The Emergence of Pakistan - Chaudhri Muhammad Ali (1st Edition, 1983)
  6. Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Indian Perspectives - K. Arif (1st Edition, 1984)
  7. The Economy of Pakistan - Khawaja Amjad Saeed (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0199060800 or ISBN-13: 978-9693508703)
  8. International Affairs - Safdar Mahmood (2nd Edition, 1967)
  9. Political System of Pakistan - Khalid Bin Sayeed (1st Edition, 1987)
ENG113 Communication Skills 2 Credit Hours
Introduction to Communication to skills:

Communication principles, the process of communication, importance of good communication skills in business environment, communication in business organizations (internal-operational, external-operational, personal, challenge of communication in the global market).

Study skills:

Brain storming, time-management, effective reading strategies, note-taking, organization, summarizing.

Components of communication:

Context, sender-encoder, message, medium, receiver-decoder, feedback.

Non Verbal Communication:

Appearance and dress codes, body language-silence-time-space, importance of listening in communication

Functional English:

Defining factors in everyday communication (in business organization, in social exchanges), role-play/speaking activities.

Public Speaking:

Difference between speaking and writing, reading texts of good public speeches and analysis of their components, listening to famous public speeches, exercises in public speaking

Formal presentations:

Difference between informal and formal presentations, modes of formal presentations (extemporaneous, prepared, reading out from a written text, combination of the above mentioned), purpose of oral presentations (entertain, persuade, inform, sell), mechanics of presentations (organization, preparation including avas, rehearse, present), teacher shall model presentations both, with and without avas.

Correctness of Written Communication:

Punctuation, grammar: some basic principles, error correcting exercises.

Written Communication:

Systematic approach to effective written communication (language, style, tone, organization), practice of written communication for a variety of situations.

Recommended Books
  1. Effective Business Communications - Herta A. Murphy, Herbert W. Hildebrandt, Jane P. Thomas (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 007044398X or ISBN-13: 978-0070443983)
  2. Ultimate Cover Letters - Martin John Yate (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0749464054 or ISBN-13: 978-0749464059)
  3. The Ultimate Job Search Letters Book: Write a Perfect Letter and Get That Job - Martin John Yate (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0749440694 or ISBN-13: 978-0749440695)
  4. Career Roadmap Guide for Engineers (A One Stop Solution for All Engineering Professionals) - Junaid Shaikh (1st Edition, ISBN-13: 978-9699526008)

3rd Semester Courses

ES204 Amplifiers and Oscillators 3 Credit Hours
Amplifier Fundamentals:

Gain calculation – system analysis, single stage BJT and FET amplifier, frequency response.

Practical Amplifier Considerations:

Input and output impedance, real and apparent gain, amplifier loading, impedance matching of amplifiers.

Power Amplifiers:

Classes of power amplifiers, series-fed class A amplifiers, power efficiency and dissipation, harmonic distortion, single-ended class A amplifiers, transformer-coupled push-pull amplifiers, other push-pull amplifiers, complementary symmetry amplifiers.

Tuned Amplifiers:

Single tuned amplifiers, coupling of tuned amplifiers, double tuned amplifiers, stagger tuned amplifiers.

Feedback Amplifiers:

General feedback concepts, voltage feedback amplifiers, current feedback amplifiers, effect of feedback on frequency response, series and shunt feedback amplifiers, effect of feedback on non-linear distortion and noise.

Transistor Amplifier at High Frequency:

Design and analysis of high frequency amplifiers using S-plane technique, step response of high frequency amplifiers.

Multi-Stage Transistor Amplifier:

The multi-stage amplifier at mid-frequencies, approximation for low and high frequencies, design of a broadband amplifier.


Hartley oscillators, colpitt oscillators, RC phase shift oscillators, wein-bridge oscillators, crystal oscillators based on BJT and FET.

Recommended Books
  1. Basic Electronics: Devices, Circuits, and Systems - Michael M. Cirovic (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0835903702 or ISBN-13: 978-0835903707)
  2. Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design - William H. Hayt, Gerold W. Neudeck (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471125016 or ISBN-13: 978-0471125013)
  3. Electronic Principles: Physics, Models and Circuits - Paul E. Gray, Campbell L. Searle (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0471323985 or ISBN-13: 978-0471323983)
MTH202 Differential Equations and Fourier Series 3 Credit Hours
First Order Linear and Non-Linear Differential Equations:

Introduction, formation and solution of first order, first degree differential equations.

Higher Order Linear Differential Equations:

Homogeneous linear equations of order n with constants coefficients, solutions of higher order differential equations according to the roots of auxiliary equation, non-homogeneous linear equations, cauchy euler equation, method of variations of parameters, applications of higher order linear differential equations.

Introduction to Partial Differential Equations:

Solution of laplace equation, wave equation and equation by variable separable method, heat equation (simple case).

Fourier series:

Fourier coefficients, convergence of fourier series, fourier series of odd and even functions.

Recommended Books
  1. Introductory Course in Differential Equations for Students in Classical and Engineering Colleges - Daniel Alexander Murray (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 1418181536 or ISBN-13: 978-1418181536)
  2. Advanced Engineering Mathematics - H. K. Dass (20th Edition, ISBN-10: 8121903459 or ISBN-13: 978-8121903455)
  3. Higher Engineering Mathematics - B. S. Grewal (40th Edition, ISBN-10: 8174091157 or ISBN-13: 978-8174091154)
  4. Mathematical Methods - S. M. Yousuf, Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Amin (2nd Edition)
  5. Ordinary Differential Equations with Numerical Techniques - John L. Van Iwaarden (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0155675508 or ISBN-13: 978-0155675506)
  6. Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Erwin Kreyszig (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 0471154962 or ISBN-13: 978-0471154969)
ES214 Digital Electronics 3 Credit Hours
Number Systems:

Introduction to number systems, binary numbers, hexadecimal numbers, octal numbers, decimal to binary and binary to decimal number conversion, hexadecimal to binary and binary to hexadecimal conversion, binary coded decimal numbers, grey code, binary to grey and grey to binary number conversion, parity in codes.

Boolean Algebra and Boolean Operations:

Introduction to digital electronics, logic, events and binary variables, introduction to fundamental boolean operations, NOT, OR, AND operation and truth tables, other boolean operations as XOR, NOR, NAND, XNOR, truth tables, boolean algebra, boolean expressions, boolean rules, demorgan's theorems, two's complement of a binary number.

Logic Gates:

Introduction to digital logic gates, symbols of logic gates, positive logic, negative logic, implementing simple Boolean expressions with logic gates, concept of universal gate, NAND gate as a universal gate, NOR gate as a universal gate.

Combinational Logic Circuits:

Few examples of combinational logic circuits including half adder, full adder, parallel adder, parallel adder subtractor, deriving sum-of-products (SOP) and product-of-sums (POS) expressions from a truth table, logic comparators.

Expression Simplification:

Reducing an expression using boolean rules, introduction to Karnaugh map, reducing an expression using Karnaugh-map, implementing logic circuits using universal gate, deriving SOP and POS expressions directly from K-map, few examples with K-map, hazzard free design.

Code Converters:

1 of 8 decoders with active high outputs, 1 of 8 decoder with active low outputs, binary numbers to grey code converter, grey code to binary numbers converter, 7-segment driver for common cathode displays and common anode displays, binary to BCD converter.

Integrated Digital Circuits:

Multiplexers (MUX) and demultiplexers, Read Only Memory (ROM), kinds of ROM e.g. PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs), PAL devices, implementing combinational logic using integrated circuits.


Seven-segment displays, common anode display, common cathode display, seven-segment display driver, dot matrix displays, LED and LCD displays, drivers for displays.

Digital Technology and Logic Families:

Diode as a switch, transistor as a switch, open-collector switch, logic families, resistor-transistor logic, diode-transistor logic, transistor-transistor logic, classes of TTL families, other logic families like emitted coupled logic, injection integrated logic, direct coupled transistor logic, complementary-symmetry metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic, operation of CMOS NOT Gate and CMOS NAND Gate.

Switch Parameters:

Switch parameters e.g. fan-in, fan-out, VOH, VIH, VOL, VIL, IIL, IOL, IIH, and IOH, noise margin, reading TTL data sheets, rise and fall times of a rectangular wave, propagation delay times of a logic gate, propagation delay times in TTL, propagation delay times in CMOS, hazzards, comparison among parameters of logic families, reading CMOS data sheets.

Interfacing Digital Circuits:

Inverting and non-inverting buffers, LED drivers, calculating fan-in and fan-out of logic gates, interfacing TTL to CMOS, pull-up resistor, interfacing CMOS to TTL, buffers, buffer 9004.

Multivibrators and FLIP FLOPs:

Introduction to multivibrators, transistor circuits of bi-stable multivibrator, mono-stable multivibrator, and a-stable multivibrator, timing diagrams of multivibrators, circuit operation and truth tables of SR latch, SR flipflop, JK flip flop, master-slave JK flip flop, D flip flop, T flip flop, Y-latch, 555 timer.

Recommended Books
  1. Digital Integrated Electronics - Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0070857881 or ISBN-13: 978-0070857889)
  2. Digital Electronics: Principles and Applications - Roger L Tokheim (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0073126349 or ISBN-13: 978-0073126340)
  3. Digital Systems: Principles and Applications - Ronald J. Tocci, Neal Widmer, Greg Moss (11th Edition, ISBN-10: 0135103827 or ISBN-13: 978-0135103821)
  4. Digital Electronics: A Practical Approach - William Kleitz (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0130896292 or ISBN-13: 978-0130896292)
  5. Analog and Digital Circuit Design - Shahzad Mahmood (1st Edition, 2003)
EL202 Electrical Circuits 3 Credit Hours

Basic two terminal circuit elements, linear time-invariant resistor, ohm's law, capacitor, inductor, energy concepts in two terminal elements, energy dissipated in a resistor, energy stored in a capacitor and inductor.

Kirchhoff's Law:

Statements of Kirchhoff's voltage and current law, linearly independent (KCL and KVL) equations, elementary network topology, nodal and loop analysis by systematic application of KVL and KCL, series and parallel connections of two terminal circuit elements.

Elementary Transient Analysis:

Differential and Integral forms of circuit equations, initial voltage on a capacitor, initial current in an inductor, first-order circuits, solution of single first order differential equations, homogeneous, particular and total solutions, exponential responses, second-order circuits.

Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis:

Network response to sinusoidal driving functions, complex impedance and admittance functions, development of concept of phasor, power consideration, complex power, maximum power transfer, circuits, series and parallel RLC circuits, quality factor.

Exponential Excitation and Transformed Network:

Representation of excitations by exponential functions, single element responses, forced response with exponential excitation, introduction to the transformed network, driving point impedance and admittance.

Network Theorems:

Linear and non-linear networks, superposition theorem, reciprocity theorem, maximum power transfer theorem, equivalent networks, thevenin's theorem, thevenin's equivalent network, norton's theorem, norton's equivalent networks, t-equivalent networks.

Recommended Books
  1. Basic Circuit Theory - Charles A. Desoer, Ernest S. Kuh (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0070851832 or ISBN-13: 978-0070851832)
  2. Basic Electrical Engineering - Arthur Eugene Fitzgerald, David E. Higginbotham, Arvin Grabel (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 007021154X or ISBN-13: 978-0070211544)
IN202 Engineering Management 3 Credit Hours
Introduction and Overview of the Subject of Engineering Management:

Introduction to engineering management, management and its characteristics.

Project Management:

Defining project management, its objectives and basic functions, project identification, project life cycle and project stakeholders, managerial levels, roles and skills, effective goal setting, management by objectives.

Introduction to Planning and Scheduling:

Types and tools for planning, WBS, examples and class exercise, activity on node (AON), critical path method (CPM), examples and class exercise, introduction to precedence diagram method (PDM), PDM relationships (SS, FS, FF, SF), examples and class exercise, crashing network techniques, program evaluation and review techniques (PERT), examples and class exercise.

Introduction to Engineering Economics:

Time value of money, simple and compound interest, cash flow diagrams, discounting, depreciation and break even analysis, methods of economic comparisons for project selection, comparisons of assets and internal rate of return benefit/cost analysis and cost effectiveness analysis.

Introduction to the Management of Human Resource and its Foundation:

Evolution of management thought in changing environment, management ethical and social responsibilities, risk management, strategic human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training and development, career development, motivation, leadership, reward and compensation, discipline and counseling, benefits, health, communication programs, labour relations, collective bargaining.

Recommended Books
  1. Human Resource Management - Leon C. Megginson, Geralyn McClure Franklin, M. Jane Byrd (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 087393377X or ISBN-13: 978-0873933773)
  2. Principles of Engineering Economy - Eugene L. Grant, W. Grant Ireson, Richard S. Leavenworth (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 047163526X or ISBN-13: 978-0471635260)

4th Semester Courses

MTH213 Complex Variables and Transforms 3 Credit Hours
Complex Numbers System and Complex Variable Theory:

Introduction to complex number systems, De moiver's theorem and its applications, complex functions, cauchy-riemann equations (in cartesian and polar coordinates), complex integration, singularities, poles, residues and contour integration and applications.

Laplace Transform:

Laplace and inverse laplace transform of elementary functions and their properties, applications of laplace transformation in various fields of engineering.

Fourier Transform:

Fourier transform and inverse fourier transforms, solution of differential equations using fourier transform.

Recommended Books
  1. Advanced Engineering Mathematics - H. K. Dass (20th Edition, ISBN-10: 8121903459 or ISBN-13: 978-8121903455)
  2. Higher Engineering Mathematics - B. S. Grewal (40th Edition, ISBN-10: 8174091157 or ISBN-13: 978-8174091154)
  3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Erwin Kreyszig (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 0471154962 or ISBN-13: 978-0471154969)
  4. Schaum's Outlines: Laplace Transforms - Murray R. Spiegel (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 007060231X or ISBN-13: 978-0070602311)
  5. Schaum's Outlines: Complex Variables - Murray R. Spiegel (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0070602301 or ISBN-13: 978-0070602304)
ES201 Electromagnetics 3 Credit Hours
Review of Vector Analysis:

Vector analysis and co-ordinate systems, gradient, divergence and curl of a vector, divergence theorem, potential gradient, relation between E and V

Poisson's and Laplace's Equations:

Introduction, poisson's and laplace's equations, cartesian solution of laplace's equation, determination of E by the method of images

The Electric Fields:

Electric charges, polarization, and electric force, coloumb's law, electric fields, field lines, superposition, inductive charges, and dipoles, electric field intensity, field intensity due to a point charge, line charge, sheet of charge and continuous volume charge density, electric flux, gauss's law, electric flux density, work done in moving a point charge, electrostatic potential, electrical energy, and equipotential surfaces, conductors, and electrostatic shielding, capacitance and field energy, polarization, dielectrics, and capacitors.

The Magnetic Fields:

Magnetic fields, magnetic flux and density, lorentz force, torques, moving charges in B-fields, force on a moving charge and differential current element, force and torque on a closed circuit, biot-savart law, gauss's law for magnetic fields, ampere's law, stokes theorem, solenoids, the field due to solenoid, electromagnetic induction, motional EMF, eddy currents, and magnetic braking, synchronous motors, and induction motors, magnetic field energy, magnetic materials, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, magnetization and permeability elecromagnetic waves (radio)

Time varying field and Maxwell's Equation:

Faraday's law, continuity equation, displacement current, modified amphere's law, non-conservative fields, maxwell's equations in point and integral form, elecromagnetic waves equation

Recommended Books
  1. Engineering Electromagnetics - William Hayt, John Buck (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 0073380660 or ISBN-13: 978-0073380667)
  2. Basic Engineering Electromagnetics: An Applied Approach - Richard Coren (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0130603694 or ISBN-13: 978-0130603692)
  3. Electromagnetics - John Daniel Kraus, John D. Kraus (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0070356211 or ISBN-13: 978-0070356214)
  4. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems - Edward Conrad Jordan, Keith George Balmain (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 8120300548 or ISBN-13: 978-8120300545)
  5. Electromagnetic Concepts and Applications - Richard E. Dubroff, S. V. Marshall, G. G. Skitek (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0133011518 or ISBN-13: 978-0133011517)
ES242 Linear Integrated Circuits and Filters 3 Credit Hours
Operational Amplifiers:

Basics, mathematical operations, practical considerations, differentiators and integrators, single supply biasing and norton amplifiers, analysis of op-amp action, op-amp specifications: interpreting op-amp data sheet, offset voltage and current, temperature rating, output swing, CMRR, slew rate.

Integrated Circuits:

Precision rectifiers, peak detectors, comparators, clampers, sample and hold circuit, digital to analog to digital converters, oscillators and integrated timers.

Filter Design:

Filter response terminology, second order filter functions (low pass, high pass, band pass, notch, and all pass), examples of passive filter circuits (low pass, high pass, band pass notch, and all-pass), examples for a band pass filter, circuit for single amplifier biquad filters, circuit sensitivity, generalized impedance converter based biquads and integrator based biquads, comparison of biquad realizations, butterworth approximation, chebychev approximation.

Recommended Books
  1. Operational Amplifiers - George Clayton, Steve Winder (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0750646438 or ISBN-13: 978-0750646437)
  2. Electronic Devices (Conventional Current Version) - Thomas L. Floyd (9th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132549867 or ISBN-13: 978-0132549868)
  3. Burr-Brown IC Data Book - 1994 - Data Conversion Products - Burr-Brown Corp (1st Edition)
ES254 Microcontroller and Applications 3 Credit Hours
Microcomputer Fundamentals:

Introduction, simplified microcomputer architecture, simplified memory organization, simplified CPU organization and instruction set, microcomputer operation.

Microprocessor Architecture and Programming Techniques:

Structure of 8080/8085 and 8086 microprocessors and their organization, Pin-diagram and functions, data sheet description, interrupts, 8085 instruction set, programming techniques, structure of MC 6800 and MC 6809 microprocessor and its organization, Pin-diagram and functions, the 6800 instruction set, programming techniques.

Interfacing the Microprocessor:

Introduction, interfacing with ROM and RAM, basics of input/output interfacing, interfacing with practical i/o ports (serial and parallel), memory map and address decoding.


Standalone applications of microcontroller, minimum component design, programming of microcontroller, multiple microcontrollers based applications, microprocessor based data acquisition and control interfacing a/d and d/a converters, industrial applications and microprocessors, system designing

Recommended Books
  1. Microprocessors: Principles and Applications - Charles M. Gilmore (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0028018370 or ISBN-13: 978-0028018379)
  2. Microprocessors and Microcomputer-Based System Design - Mohamed Rafiquzzaman (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0849344751 or ISBN-13: 978-0849344756)
  3. Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Microprocessor Fundamentals - Roger L. Tokheim (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0070649588 or ISBN-13: 978-0070649583)
  4. Fundamental Principles of Microcomputer Architecture - Keith L. Doty (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0916460134 or ISBN-13: 978-0916460136)
  5. Basic Microprocessors and the 6800 - Ron Bishop (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0810407582 or ISBN-13: 978-0810407589)
  6. Introduction to Microprocessors - Aditya P. Mathur (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0074602225 or ISBN-13: 978-0074602225)
  7. Microprocessors: From Chips to Systems - Rodnay Zaks (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0895880423 or ISBN-13: 978-0895880420)
  8. PC-Anatomy: An Open Book on Personal Computer Hardware, Troubleshooting and Maintenance - B. S. Chowdhry, A. R. Memon (1st Edition)
ES224 Sequential Circuit Design 3 Credit Hours
Asynchronous Circuits:

Asynchronous event counter, random sequence counters.

Synchronous Counters and Registers:

State assignment for a modulo N synchronous counter, making transition table, universal map, U-map reading rules, obtaining excitation expressions from U-map, circuit realization, races in a synchronous circuit, race-free state assignment of a modulo N synchronous counter using grey code, introducing additional states for race free state assignment of a synchronous counter, designing random sequence counter, shift registers, ring counters, random access memory.

Introduction to Sequential Machines:

Classification of sequential machines, concept of pulse and level digital signal, understanding word statement and its key words, state diagram, state table, flow table.

Transition Table:

Assigning states to the state table of a pulse input machine, assigning states to the state table of a level input synchronous machine, assigning states to a level input asynchronous machine, races in an asynchronous level machine, introducing cycles to eliminate races, obtaining transition table for pulse input machine, synchronous level input machine.

Excitation and Output Expressions

Obtaining excitation expressions for a pulse input machine, obtaining excitation expressions for a level input asynchronous machine, obtaining excitation expressions of a level input synchronous machine, obtaining output expressions for a pulse input machine, obtaining output expressions for a level input asynchronous machine, obtaining output expression for a level input synchronous machine.

Reduction Techniques

Compatible states, equivalent states, determining compatible states using merger diagram, determining equivalent states using implication table.

Recommended Books
  1. Switching Circuits for Engineers (Electrical Engineering) - Mitchell P. Marcus (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0138799083 or ISBN-13: 978-0138799083)

5th Semester Courses

TL322 Analog and Digital Communication 3 Credit Hours
Introduction to Communication Systems:

Introduction to communication systems, building blocks of a communication system, history of telecommunications, classification of communication (on the basis of link direction).

Signals and Systems for Communication Systems:

Information and carrier signals, baseband and passband signals, noise, noise sources, signal to noise ratio (SNR), noise factor and noise figure.

Analogue Modulation Techniques:

Modulation, amplitude modulation (AM) and demodulation, single sideband, double sideband and vestigial sideband modulation, frequency modulation (FM), wideband FM, narrowband FM, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, direct and indirect FM, phase modulation (PM).

Pulse Modulation:

Pulse modulation, analog to digital conversion (sampling, quantization and encoding), pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM and delta modulation.

Line Encoding Techniques:

Return-to-Zero (RZ), non return-to-zero (NRZ), alternate mark inversion (AMI), pseudo-ternary, manchester and differential manchester, bipolar with 8 zeros substitution (B8ZS) and high density bipolar 3 zeros (HDB3).

Information Theory:

Shannon's capacity theorem, effect of SNR on the capacity of a channel.

Digital Modulation:

Amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK), phase shift keying (PSK), quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), interpretation of BER curves for digital modulation schemes.

Error Detection and Correction:

Motivation for error detection and correction, vertical redundancy check, cyclic redundancy check, hamming codes and linear block codes.

Lab Outline:

Differentiating analog and digital communication systems, analog modulation techniques; amplitude modulation using LD trainer, double sideband suppressed carrier, single sideband residual carrier, single sideband suppressed carrier, amplitude demodulation, frequency modulation and demodulation, phase modulation and demodulation, pulse modulation using EV trainer, pulse code modulation, differential/delta modulation.

Recommended Books
  1. Telecommunications - Warren Hioki (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 013020031X or ISBN-13: 978-0130200310)
  2. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems - B. P. Lathi, Zhi Ding (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0195331451 or ISBN-13: 978-0195331455)
  3. Digital Communications - Ian A. Glover, Peter M. Grant (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0273718304 or ISBN-13: 978-0273718307)
  4. Communication Systems - Simon Haykin, Michael Moher (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 8126521511 or ISBN-13: 978-8126521517)
TL303 Wave Propagation and Antennas 3 Credit Hours

Maxwell's equation, elecromagnetic waves (radio), the speed of light, resonance, index of refraction, poynting vector, oscillating charges, and polarization, refraction and dispersion, polarizers, malus's law, brewster angle, and polarization by relection/scattering, doppler effect, traveling waves and standing waves.

Uniform Plane Wave Propagation:

Uniform plane wave propagation, uniform plane waves, the wave equations for conducting medium, sinusoidal time variations, phase and group velocity, conductors and dielectrics, poynting theorem and flow of power, reflection and refraction of waves at the boundary of two dielectrics, application of boundary value problems and their solutions, surface impedance.

Guided Waves:

Waves between parallel planes, TE (transverse electric), waves, TM (transverse magnetic) waves, TEM (traverse electromagnetic) waves, attenuation in parallel plane guides, wave impedance.

Ground Wave Propagation:

Plane earth reflection, space and surface waves, spherical earth propagation, tropospheric waves.

Ionospheric Waves:

Introduction to ionosphere, wave propagation in the ionosphere, reflection and refraction by the ionosphere, regular and irregular variations of the ionosphere, attenuation factor.


Introduction, network theorems, directional properties of dipole antennas, two-element array, horizontal patterns in broadcast arrays, linear arrays, multiplication patterns, binomial array, antenna gain and effective area, antenna terminal impedance, transmission loss between antennas resistance and reciprocity theorem.

Lab Outline:

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS: basic antenna parameters, patterns, beam area, radiation intensity, beam efficiency, diversity and gain, antenna apertures, effective height, bandwidth, radiation, efficiency, antenna temperature and antenna filed zones
ANTENNA MODELING AND ANALYSIS: conical horn antenna , slot coupled patch antenna, dipole antenna, helical antenna, yagi-uda array, log periodic antenna, antenna for special applications - sleeve antenna, turnstile antenna, omni directional antennas, antennas for satellite antennas for ground penetrating radars, embedded antennas, ultra wide band antennas, plasma antenna
ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS: scattering parameters, radiation pattern measurement, gain and directivity measurements, anechoic chamber measurement
SIMULATION OF MAXWELL EQUATIONS: wave equation for lossy and lossless media

Recommended Books
  1. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems - Edward Conrad Jordan, Keith George Balmain (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 8120300548 or ISBN-13: 978-8120300545)
  2. Engineering Electromagnetics - William Hayt, John Buck (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 0073380660 or ISBN-13: 978-0073380667)
  3. Electromagnetics - John Daniel Kraus, John D. Kraus (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0070356211 or ISBN-13: 978-0070356214)
  4. Electromagnetic Concepts and Applications - Richard E. Dubroff, S. V. Marshall, G. G. Skitek (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0133011518 or ISBN-13: 978-0133011517)
MTH311 Numerical Analysis and Computer Applications 3 Credit Hours
Error Analysis:

Introduction, floating points, errors, types of errors.

Solution of Non-Linear Equation:

Bisection method, regula-falsi method, newton-raphson method, fixed-point iterative method.

Solution of Linear Algebraic Equation:

Iterative methods: jaccobi's method, guass-seidal method.

Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors:

Power method

Interpolation and Extrapolation:

Differences: forward, backward, central, operators and their relations, newton's forward interpolation formula, newton's backward interpolation formula, newton's divided difference formula, lagrange's interpolation formula, stirling's formula.

Numerical Differentiation:

Newton's forward and backward differentiation formulae.

Numerical Quadrature:

Trapezoidal rule, simpson's one-third (1/3) rule, simpson's three-eighth (3/8) rule, weddle's rule, gaussian quadrature.

Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations:

Taylor series method, Euler's and its modified methods, runge-kutta (RK) method, predictor corrector methods, miline's method, adam-bashforth method.

Recommended Books
  1. Numerical Methods for Engineers - Steven Chapra, Raymond Canale (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 007339792X or ISBN-13: 978-0073397924)
  2. Applied Numerical Analysis - Curtis F. Gerald, Patrick O. Wheatley (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0321133048 or ISBN-13: 978-0321133045)
  3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Erwin Kreyszig (10th Edition, ISBN-10: 0470458364 or ISBN-13: 978-0470458365)
  4. Ordinary Differential Equations with Numerical Techniques - John L. Van Iwaarden (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0155675508 or ISBN-13: 978-0155675506)
  5. A First Course in Numerical Analysis with C++ - Saeed Akhter Bhatti, Naeem Akhter Bhatti (5th Edition)
TL314 Signals and Systems 3 Credit Hours

Classification of signals, basic operations on signals, signal representation and models, system characteristics, linear time-invariant (LTI) systems, zero-state and zero-input responses, characterization of systems using system equations and impulse response, system order, properties of LTI systems, causality and stability.

Time Domain Analysis:

Sinusoidal and complex exponential signals, singularity function signals, signal energy and signal power, orthogonal signals, signal representation by generalized fourier series, convolution evaluation and properties.

System Representation in Laplace Domain:

Review of laplace transform, pole-zero plots, system, stability, S-domain transfer function, obtaining transfer function from the system equation.

Frequency Domain Representation and Analysis of Signals and Systems:

Spectra and bandwidth of signals, review of fourier series and fourier transform for representation of signals, standard signals in the frequency domain, energy density spectrum, power density spectrum, auto-correlation function, system frequency response, phase delay and group delay.

Continuous-Time Filters:

Distortion less transmission, ideal filters, approximation of ideal filters, butterworth and chebyshev filter design, frequency transformation, introduction to elliptic and chebyshev type II filters.

Sampled Continuous - Time Signals and Systems:

Ideal sampling, sampling theorem, practical sampling effects, discrete-time signals as vectors, DT-systems as linear transformation of these vectors, constant coefficient difference equations, solving difference equations, determining unit pulse response.

Recommended Books
  1. Signal and Linear System Analysis - Gordon E. Carlson (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471124656 or ISBN-13: 978-0471124658)
  2. Signals and Systems - Simon Haykin, Barry Van Veen (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471164747 or ISBN-13: 978-0471164746)
  3. Signals and Systems - Alan V. Oppenheim, Alan S. Willsky, with S. Hamid Nawab (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0138147574 or ISBN-13: 978-0138147570)
ENG320 Technical Report Writing Skills 3 Credit Hours

Text analysis, critical thinking, skimming, scanning and detailed reading


Academic writing/technical report writing drafting letters with different types of messages with different registers and purposes, prepare CV's and covering letters according to job requirement


Listening comprehension formal and informal lectures and presentations, take notes and collect specific information


Speaking in real life situations, conversational strategies, elements of public speaking: giving lectures and presentation on specific topics, ask questions and explain point of view in discussions (demonstrate turn taking technique)

Recommended Books
  1. Axelrod & Cooper's Concise Guide to Writing - Rise B. Axelrod, Charles R. Cooper (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0312668902 or ISBN-13: 978-0312668907)
  2. English for Business: A Functional Approach - Joseph Chilver (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 1858050634 or ISBN-13: 978-1858050638)
  3. Writing: Advanced - Ron White (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0194534073 or ISBN-13: 978-0194534079)
  4. College Writing Skills with Readings - John Langan (9th Edition, ISBN-10: 0078036275 or ISBN-13: 978-0078036279)
  5. Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and Guide - Laurie G. Kirszner, Stephen R. Mandell (13th Edition, ISBN-10: 1457666529 or ISBN-13: 978-1457666520)
  6. Mercury Reader - A Custom Publication - Janice Neuleib, Kathleen Shine Cain, Stephen Ruffus (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 1256182192 or ISBN-13: 978-1256182191)
  7. Effective Business Communications - Herta A. Murphy, Herbert W. Hildebrandt, Jane P. Thomas (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 007044398X or ISBN-13: 978-0070443983)
  8. Ultimate Cover Letters - Martin John Yate (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0749464054 or ISBN-13: 978-0749464059)

6th Semester Courses

ES323 Opto-Electronics 3 Credit Hours

Introduction of optoelectronics devices, historical background, the nature of light, basic laws and properties of light, units of measuring light (radiometric and photometric units)

Semiconductor Light Sources:

Light sources, emission and absorption of radiation, the einstein relation, light emission in semiconductor, stimulation emission in semiconductors, lasing conditions in semiconductors, population inversion, electrical and optical bandwidth


Laser operation and basic concept, optical feedback, pumping, einstein relationship, population inversion, optical emission from semiconductor, semiconductors laser diodes (SLDs), types of semiconductor laser diodes, homojunction and heterojunction lasers, semiconductor injection laser, stripe geometry, gain guided laser, index-guided laser, quantum well lasers, short and couple guide laser, distributed feedback laser, VCSE lasers, injection laser characteristics, injection laser to fiber coupling, non-semiconductor lasers, spectral and output characteristics, threshold condition, laser losses, laser modes, classes of lasers, single mode operation, stripe geometry, efficiency, tunable lasers, direct and external modulation

Light Emitting Diode:

Light emitting diodes (LEDs), types of light emitting diodes (LEDs), LED power and efficiency, spectral characteristics, modulation, capabilities

Photo Detectors:

Photo detection in semiconductors, quantum efficiency, responsivity, long wavelength cutoff, semiconductor photodiodes without internal gain, PIN photodiodes, avalanche photodiodes (APDs), photodetector noise considerations, phototransistors.

Optical Transmitters and Receiver:

Intensity modulation and direct detection modulation (IM/DD), SLD drive circuits, LED drive circuit, optical receivers design, receiver noise.

Lab Outline:

Introduction to optoelectronics, measuring characteristics of optical sources (LED and LASER), measuring characteristics of optical detector (PN, PIN and APD), overview of optical source meter and optical power meter, field optical spectrum analyzer

Recommended Books
  1. Optoelectronics - Endel Uiga (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0024221708 or ISBN-13: 978-0024221704)
  2. Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice - John Senior (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 013032681X or ISBN-13: 978-0130326812)
  3. Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective - Rajiv Ramaswami, Kumar Sivarajan, Galen Sasaki (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0123740924 or ISBN-13: 978-0123740922)
TL333 Computer Communication and Networking 3 Credit Hours
Introduction to Communication System:

Communication model, data communications, networks, the Internet.

Architecture and Protocols:

Need for protocol architecture, layered architecture of ISO-OSI model, standard protocols and its functions, TCP/IP protocol suit, IPv4 and IPv6

Data Communication:

Data transmission concept and terminology, analog and digital transmission, transmission impairments (attenuation, delay distortion, noise), bandwidth and data rate, transmission types (synchronous, asynchronous), types of errors (error detection and correction methods), modes of transmission (simplex, half duplex and full duplex).

Data Link Control Protocols and Multiplexing Techniques:

Introduction to error/flow control (stop-n-wait, sliding window), frame format (SDLC and HDLC), frequency division multiplexing (FDM), time division multiplexing (TDM), synchronous TDM and asynchronous TDM.

Switched Communication Network:

Switched networks (circuit switched, message switched, packet switched virtual CKT. and datagram), broadcast network, packet radio network, satellite network, access method (CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, ALOHA and token passing), introduction to congestion and congestion control mechanism.

Lab Outline:

Installation and troubleshooting of network interface card (NIC), transmission media (guided/unguided), cables and connectors, introduction to client/server architecture, introduction to LAN/WAN, physical layout (bus, star, tree and ring topology), inter networking devices (repeaters, bridges, switches and routers), LAN types: ethernet, token ring, ARCnet, FDDI, fast ethernet, 100 base VG any LAN etc., introduction to IP addressing scheme, introduction to OPNET: a network simulation tool, observe the operation of ethernet network (creating a direct link with media access control using OPNET), modeling the CCNA topology using OPNET in a WAN scale, introduction to routers and its interfaces, router configuration, introduction to routing (static/dynamic).

Recommended Books
  1. Data and Computer Communications - William Stallings (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131006819 or ISBN-13: 978-0131006812)
  2. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach - James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132856204 or ISBN-13: 978-0132856201)
  3. Computer Networks - Andrew S. Tanenbaum, David J. Wetherall (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132126958 or ISBN-13: 978-0132126953)
TL344 Digital Signaling Processing 3 Credit Hours

Review of discrete-time signals and systems along with their representation, analogue-to-digital conversion, uniform sampling theorem, quantisation and its effects, quantisation noise to signal ratio.

Time-Domain DSP:

Characterization of a discrete-time system using difference equation and pulse transfer function, signal energy and signal power of a DT signal, convolution sum and its use in DT systems, correlation, and normalized correlation, the concept of self-similarity and autocorrelation, using autocorrelation for timing recovery.

Fourier Transform:

Discrete-Time fourier transform, periodicity of DTFT and the proof of nyquist theorem, discrete fourier transform (DFT), properties of DFT, introduction to fast fourier transform (radix-2, decimation in time, decimation in frequency), magnitude and phase response using DFT.

Z Transform:

Z-transform for the analyses of discrete-time systems, inverse Z-transform, solution of difference equations using Z-transforms, obtaining the pulse transfer function from the difference equation, pole-zero maps in the Z-domain, stability of discrete-time systems

Digital Filters:

Concepts of FIR and IIR digital systems, design of digital filters using discrete-time fourier transform - window method, introduction to window functions, comparison of the properties of the window functions.

Spectrum Estimation:

Stationary and non-stationary signals, estimating energy density spectrum of non-stationary signals using window functions, advantages and disadvantages of the window functions in terms of spectral resolution and leakage, periodogram or power density spectrum.

Multi-rate Digital Signal Processing:

Advantages for multi-rate digital signal processing, decimation, interpolation, sampling rate conversion by a rational factor, applications for multi-rate signal processing in telecommunication engineering.

Lab Outline:

MATLAB: sampling and quantisation of signals, implementation and interpretation of convolution, correlation algorithms, frequency-domain analyses of discrete-time signals and systems, discrete fourier transform (DFT), design of FIR filters using window method, power spectrum estimation of signals, introduction to multirate signal processing.

TI DSP 320TMSC6713: introduction to TI 320TMSC6713 DSP starter kit and code composer studio, implementation of mathematical equations on the DSK, import/export of data to/from DSK, digital direct synthesis.

Recommended Books
  1. Discrete-Time Signal Processing - Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0131988425 or ISBN-13: 978-0131988422)
  2. Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach - Emmanuel Ifeachor, Barrie Jervis (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0201596199 or ISBN-13: 978-0201596199)
  3. Digital Signal Processing - John G. Proakis, Dimitris K Manolakis (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131873741 or ISBN-13: 978-0131873742)
  4. Understanding Digital Signal Processing - Richard G. Lyons (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0137027419 or ISBN-13: 978-0137027415)
TL361 Microwave Engineering 3 Credit Hours

Microwave definition, microwave frequencies, properties of microwaves.

Transmission Lines:

General description of waves on transmission line, e-waves, h-waves, group velocity, phase velocity, impedance and admittance relationship of transmission line, propagation characteristics (attenuation constant, phase constant), travelling waves and standing waves, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio).


Wave-guide transmission line single mode propagation, rectangular wave-guide, problems on rectangular wave guide, cylindrical wave-guide, elliptical wave-guides, propagation characteristic wave-guide

Microwave Network Analysis:

Z and Y parameters analysis, ABCD and S representation of microwave networks, transmission lines, discontinuities and s-parameters, smith chart analyzing rules, smith chart and matching networks

Microwave Tubes:

High frequency limitations of conventional tubes. Bunching and velocity modulation

Microwave Transmitters and Receivers:

Principles and operation of one cavity and two cavity klystrons, multicavity klystron, travelling wave tubes, backward wave oscillator, microwave solid state devices, varactor diode, PIN diode, GUNN diode and IMPATT diode

Microwave Components:

Directional couplers, power dividers, microwave mixers, theory of mixing, conversion loss, microwave link planning, introduction to MMIc’s, application and limitations.

Recommended Books
  1. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design - Constantine A. Balanis (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 047166782X or ISBN-13: 978-0471667827)
  2. Foundations for Microwave Engineering - Robert E. Collin (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0070118116 or ISBN-13: 978-0070118119)
  3. Microwave Theory and Applications - Stephen F. Adam (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 013581488X or ISBN-13: 978-0135814888)
  4. Microwave Engineering - David M. Pozar (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0470631554 or ISBN-13: 978-0470631553)
TL353 Probability and Stochastic Processes 3 Credit Hours

Introduction to probability, axiomatic approach, distribution function and density function of random variables, examples of distribution and density functions, conditional and joint distribution, functions of random variables, central-limit theorem, expected value, moments, variance, mean, autocorrelation, stationary process, wide sense stationary process, transformation of stochastic processes, correlation, power-spectrum, thermal noise, band-limited processes

Introduction to linear mean square estimation and filtering problems, random signal and noise through a linear system, noise representation, signal to noise ratio for F.M., A.M., P.M. and digital modulation schemes, shot noise, white noise, noise figure and noise temperature.

Recommended Books
  1. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers - Douglas C. Montgomery, George C. Runger (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 1118539710 or ISBN-13: 978-1118539712)
  2. Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists - Ronald E. Walpole, Raymond H. Myers, Sharon L. Myers, Keying E. Ye (9th Edition, ISBN-10: 9332519080 or ISBN-13: 978-9332519084)
  3. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems - B. P. Lathi, Zhi Ding (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0195331451 or ISBN-13: 978-0195331455)
  4. Digital and Analog Communication Systems - Leon W. Couch (8th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132915383 or ISBN-13: 978-0132915380)

7th Semester Courses

TL473 Fiber Optics Communication Systems 3 Credit Hours

History of optical communication, elements of optical fiber communication (OFC) transmission link, evolution of fiber optic system, advantages of OFC system.

Optical Fiber Wave Guides:

Optical fiber waveguide, Ray theory transmission, electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation, cylindrical fibers, single mode fiber, multimode fibers, step index fibers, graded index fibers, single mode/multimode fiber transmission characteristics.

Transmission Characteristics:

Attenuation, absorption losses (intrinsic and extrinsic), scattering losses, fiber bend loss, linear scattering losses (Rayleigh and Mir scattering), non-linear scattering losses (stimulated brillouin and stimulated raman scattering), pulse broadening, intra-modal and inter-modal dispersion, overall fiber dispersion, polarization, non-linear effects.

Optical Fiber Cables and Connectors:

Optical fibers, fiber strength and durability, cable design, fiber-to-fiber joints, fiber splicing.

Optical Fiber Communication System:

Components of fiber optic networks, optical amplifiers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), advanced multiplexing strategies, operational principles of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), basic on concepts of SONET/SDH network.

Optical Fiber Measurements:

Fiber attenuation measurements, fiber dispersion measurements, field measurements, optical time domain reflectormeter (OTDR).

Recommended Books
  1. Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice - John Senior (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 013032681X or ISBN-13: 978-0130326812)
  2. Understanding Optical Fiber Communications - A. J. Rogers (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0890064784 or ISBN-13: 978-0890064788)
  3. Fiber-Optic Communication Systems - Govind P. Agrawal (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471175404 or ISBN-13: 978-0471175407)
  4. Fiber Optic Networks - Paul E. Green (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0133194922 or ISBN-13: 978-0133194920)
TL412 Satellite Communication 3 Credit Hours
Principle of Satellite Communication:

Introduction and historical background, need of satellite communication, uplink and downlink frequencies, international regulation and frequency coordination, satellite frequency allocation and band spectrum, general and technical characteristics of satellite communication signal.

Orbits and Launching Methods:

Introduction to orbits and Kepler's laws for planetary motion, orbital perturbations, GEO-stationary orbit, and antenna look angles, earth eclipse of satellite, launches and launch vehicles.

Radio Wave Propagation:

Introduction of wave propagation theory, polarization of satellite signals, atmospheric losses, ionospheric effects, rain attenuation and depolarization and other impairments.

The Space and Earth Segments:

Introduction of satellite segments, satellite on board processing, satellite subsystems, introduction and types of earth stations.

The Space Links:

Introduction, equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP), transmission losses, link power budget calculations, carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) and carrier to interference ratio (C/I).

Satellite Accessing Techniques:

Introduction of access techniques, pre-assigned and demand assigned FDMA, pre-assigned and demand assigned TDMA, satellite-switched TDMA, code-division multiple access (CDMA).

Satellite Systems and Services:

Introduction of satellite systems, global positioning system (GPS), very small aperture terminals (VSATs), direct broadcast satellite (DBS) services, mobile satellite services, metrological satellite services, remote sensing services.

Recommended Books
  1. Satellite Communications - Dennis Roddy (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0071462988 or ISBN-13: 978-0071462983)
  2. Satellite Communication Systems - M. Richharia (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0071342087 or ISBN-13: 063-9785308706)
  3. Handbook on Satellite Communications - International Telecommunications Union (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471221899 or ISBN-13: 978-0471221890)
  4. Satellite Communications Fundamentals - Jules E. Kadish, Thomas W. R. East (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 1580531369 or ISBN-13: 978-1580531368)
  5. Satellite Communications - Timothy Pratt, Charles W. Bostian, Jeremy E. Allnutt (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 047137007X or ISBN-13: 978-0471370079)
TL444 Transmission and Switching Systems 3 Credit Hours
Line Coding and Scrambling Techniques:

- Review of Unipolar, Polar, and Bipolar Line Coding Schemes
- Multi-level Line Coding Schemes (2B1Q, 4B3T), Scrambling Techniques (HDB3, B8ZS)

Review of Multiplexing Standards:

FDM, analog carrier system, synchronous TDM, data rate management techniques, digital carrier system (DS, T, and E system) and example of DS-1 framing format, statistical TDM

Switching Technology:

Circuit switching, packet switching, and virtual circuit switching

Structure of Switch:

Space-division switch (crossbar switches), multi-stage space-division switch and clos criterion, propagation delay, transmission delay, queueing delay, processing delay, time-division switch, time-space-time (TST) switch, space-time-space (STS) switch, banyan switch

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN):

Telephone handset, telephone base unit, pulse dialing, tone dialing, SLIC (BORSCHT), exchange hierarchy (class 5-4-3-2-1) and their functions, private branch exchange (PBX), customer premises equipment (CPE), local exchange carrier (LEC), interexchange carrier (IXC), ITU numbering plan, charging plan (single-pulse metering, multiple-pulse metering, periodic pulse metering, periodic multi-pulse metering)

Signaling Technique:

- Supervisory signals or line signals, routing signals or register signals, management signals or inter-register signaling
- In-channeling signaling (inband and outband signaling, PCM signaling)
- Common Channel Signaling (CCS), CSS Network (LE, STP, SCP), associated CCS, quasi-associated signaling, non-associated CCS
- Comparison between In-channeling and Common Channel Signaling
- Signaling System 7 (purpose and features of SS7, SS7 network architecture, signaling link types, protocol architecture of SS7, SS7 signaling units, basic call setup)

Traffic Analysis:

Traffic characterization (loss and delay systems), trunk, arrival rate / calling rate, holding time / service time, traffic volume, traffic intensity or average occupancy, traffic measurement unit (erlang, century call seconds)

Traffic Statistics:

call completion ratio (CCR), answer to seizure ratio (ASR) and factors affecting low ASR, network efficiency ratio (NER), call setup success rate (CSSR), call drop rate (CDR), call failure rate (CFR), mean holding time (MHT), mean conversation time (MCT), busy hour call attempts (BHCA), busy hour calling rate (BHCR), Grade of Service (GoS), blocking probability, call congestion, duration of congestion period

Traffic Types:

traffic offered (call attempts), traffic carried (call success), traffic lost (call failure)

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) / Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH):

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) overview, advantages and disadvantages of PDH, SONET and SDH overview and its features, SONET signal hierarchy (STS-1 to STS-192) and the comparison of data rates for STS and STM signals, SONET components (STS multiplexer and demultiplexer, add/drop multiplexer (ADM), regenerators), comparison of SONET and existing digital signals, SONET network and layers, SONET frame format versus SDH frame format, SONET (SOH, LOH, POH), SONET virtual tributaries, SDH containers and virtual containers

Emerging Technologies:

- Broadband implementation in commercial exchange and introduction to software switches (soft-switch)
- Unification of circuit and packet technologies, next generation networks (NGN), layered architecture, implementation strategies

Recommended Books
  1. Digital Telephony - John C. Bellamy (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0471345717 or ISBN-13: 978-0471345718)
  2. Telecommunications Switching Principles - Michael T. Hills (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0262080923 or ISBN-13: 978-0262080927)
  3. Data Communications and Networking - Behrouz A. Forouzan (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 0073376221 or ISBN-13: 978-0073376226)
  4. Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks - John Edward Flood (1st Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0130333094)
  5. Telecommunications Transmission Handbook - Roger L. Freeman (4th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0471240181)
  6. Digital Transmission Systems - David R. Smith (3rd Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1402075872)
  7. Telecom Systems, PSTN, PBX, Datacom, IP Telephony, IPTV, Wireless and Billing - Lawrence Harte, Avi Ofrane (1st Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0972805391)
  8. Signaling System #7 - Travis Russell (6th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0071822145)
TL423 Wireless Communications 3 Credit Hours

Introduction to wireless communication systems, classification of wireless systems, wireless propagation mechanisms, frequency classifications

Link Performance:

Link budget, path geometry, path clearance and obstruction (diffraction and reflection), impairments to radio systems (rain attenuation, fading etc.), fading, types of fading, fading models (statistical distributions), multipath fading and its alleviation.

Introduction to Cellular Communication System:

History, evolution of cellular system, six basic components in every cellular system

Cellular System Principles:

Frequency re-use concept, co-channel interference, channel assignment methods, handover and roaming, multiple access techniques (FDMA, TDMA and CDMA etc.)

Performance Improvement Techniques:

Power control, cell splitting, sectoring, fixed and dynamic channel assignments.

GSM Systems:

System architecture, frame structure, channel types, GSM link level, GSM handover and roaming

3G Systems and its Evolution:

Spread spectrum based communication systems, concepts and architecture

Lab Outline:

Simulation of propagation characteristics of a radio signal in free space, simulation of AWGN channel, simulation of rayleigh and rician fading channel, simulation of flat and frequency selective fading, simulation of BER performance of various digital modulation schemes (m-PSK, m-QAM) for the AWGN channel and rayleigh fading channel, simulation of frequency hopping spread spectrum, direct sequence spread spectrum and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

Recommended Books
  1. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice - Theodore S. Rappaport (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0130422320 or ISBN-13: 007-6092011736)
  2. Modern Wireless Communications - Simon O. Haykin, Michael Moher (5th Edition, ISBN-10: 0130224723 or ISBN-13: 978-0130224729)

8th Semester Courses

TL483 Mobile Network Planning 3 Credit Hours
Capacity Planning:

Detailed network design and analysis - "capacity design, traffic modeling (Erlang model), reverse/forward link capacity and link capacity equation, network architecture, site surveys and audits, cell site configurations". Link Budgets - "noise figure in link budget, S/N ratio for a mobile user, receiver sensitivity, confidence cell, shadow margin and handoff gain, fade margin, interference, forward/reverse link range, link budget factors (MAPL calculations)."

Coverage Planning:

Coverage design, average path loss models (Hata, Cost 231 etc.), Link budget factors (MAPL calculations), cell site gains and losses, drive testing, identifying antenna types, antenna configurations, coverage goals, equipment characteristics, base station design, spreadsheet based planning and growth planning.

GSM Network Planning (Case Study 1):

Review of GSM system and architecture, reverse and forward links, frequency planning (frequency reuse, frequency allocation, frequency conflicts, handoffs, power control).

CDMA 2000 Network Planning (Case Study 2):

Fundamentals of CDMA2000 standard, radio configurations, wireless architecture, reverse and forward links, logical and physical channels. PN Planning (frequency allocation, pilot increment and search window size, PN offset reuse patterns, PN offset planning, pilot searching process, aliasing). Handoff Planning (soft handoffs, deploying second carrier, hard handoff, interference mitigation, hard handoff triggers, pilot beacon).

Recommended Books
  1. Mobile Cellular Telecommunications: Analog and Digital Systems - William C. Y. Lee (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0070380899 or ISBN-13: 978-0070380899)
  2. Radio Interface System Planning for GSM/GPRS/UMTS - Jukka Lempiäinen, Matti Manninen (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 1441949143 or ISBN-13: 978-1441949141)
  3. Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS - Jaana Laiho, Achim Wacker, Tomas Novosad (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0470015756 or ISBN-13: 978-0470015759)
  4. CDMA RF System Engineering - Samuel C. Yang (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0890069913 or ISBN-13: 978-0890069912)
  5. CDMA Network planning - Qualcomm (Student Notes)
TL476 Multimedia Systems and Networking 3 Credit Hours
Introduction to Multimedia:

Multimedia terminology, media types (text, audio, video and graphics), multimedia applications (elastic and in-elastic traffic), multimedia technologies

Multimedia Networking:

Audio/Video compression, real-time traffic, taxonomy of multimedia applications, video streaming (client buffering, prefetching, and adapting video quality to available bandwidth, content distribution networks (CDNs), case study (youtube, netflix, and kankan systems as case studies for streaming video), conversational voice and video (adaptive playout, forward error correction, and error concealment), case study (skype), RTP/RTCP and SIP, mechanisms within the network that can be used to distinguish one class of traffic (e.g. delay-sensitive applications such as conversational voice) from another (e.g. elastic applications such as browsing web pages), and provide differentiated service among multiple classes of traffic

Networking Issues for Multimedia:

Error resilience, QoS guarantees, traffic shaping and policing, admission control algorithms, queue management, scheduling, issues in multicasting. end-to-end QoS for video delivery, wireless video, error control in video streaming, cross-layer video adaptation, integrated vs differentiated services architectures, network security in IP networks

Multimedia Coding Standards:

JPEG/JPEG-2000, H.26x, MPEG-1/4/7, AVC, scalable video coding, multipoint data conferencing: T.120, error resilience in video codecs: H.26x and MPEG, multimedia over ATM, multimedia over IP: multicast, streaming multimedia over wireless/mobile networks

Wireless Broadband Technologies:

Multimedia applications in WiMax/LTE, introduction to mobile TV, DVB. IP telephony, IPTV

Recommended Books
  1. Data and Computer Communications - William Stallings (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131006819 or ISBN-13: 978-0131006812)
  2. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach - James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132856204 or ISBN-13: 978-0132856201)
  3. Next Generation IPTV Services and Technologies - Gerard O'Driscoll (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0470163720 or ISBN-13: 978-0470163726)
  4. Broadband Telecommunications Handbook - Regis J. Bates (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0071346481 or ISBN-13: 978-0071346481)
  5. Broadband Network Architectures: Designing and Deploying Triple-Play Services - Chris Hellberg, Dylan Greene, Truman Boyes (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0132300575 or ISBN-13: 978-0132300575)
TL453 Broadband Digital Networks 3 Credit Hours
Advanced Data and Communication Networks:

Review of narrow-band technologies (ISDN, LAN, MAN, WAN), overview of broadband and emerging technologies (DSL, LTE, PON)

Medium Speed Technologies:

X.25, Frame Relay, CATV, T and E carrier systems

Link Layer broadband technologies:

ATM: protocol architecture, model planes, logical connections, control signaling, ATM cells, cell format, service categories, adaptation layer protocol, MPLS, GMPLS

Broadband ISDN:

B-ISDN interfaces, B-ISDN user access and protocols, digital signaling system, abilities and benefits of B-ISDN, B-ISDN network elements and structures, reference points, protocols, functions of different layers in B-ISDN model, Transportation of ATM cells using SDH/SONET, ATM layer in B-ISDN

Digital Subscriber Line:

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) introduction, architecture, DSL broadband technologies (HDSL, SDSL, ADSL, VDSL), line codes (QAM/CAP and DMT) in DSL, performance issues in DSL, network solutions based on DSL, a case study, next generation digital loop carriers

Latest Broadband Technologies:

Satellite transmission, free space optics, GPON, FTTH and LTE networks

Recommended Books
  1. Data and Computer Communications - William Stallings (7th Edition, ISBN-10: 0131006819 or ISBN-13: 978-0131006812)
  2. Business Data Communications - William Stallings (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0136067417 or ISBN-13: 978-0136067412)
  3. Data Communications: From Basics to Broadband - William J. Beyda (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 013145692X or ISBN-13: 978-0131456921)
  4. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach - James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross (6th Edition, ISBN-10: 0132856204 or ISBN-13: 978-0132856201)
TL499 Project/Thesis 3 Credit Hours

- Review of literature; Introduction to thesis writing; Introduction to scientific manuscript writing; Introduction to plagiarism, types of plagiarism; Thesis layout instructions.

- Students work on their projects and meet with their supervisor as per schedule.

Archived Courses

MTH101 Applied Calculus 3 Credit Hours

EL101 Basic Electrical Engineering 3 Credit Hours

ES110 Basic Electronics 3 Credit Hours

ES120 Computer Aided Engineering Drawing 2 Credit Hours

ES100 Electronic Workshop 2 Credit Hours

EN100 English 3 Credit Hours

ES310 Feedback Control Systems 3 Credit Hours

CS115 Introduction to C Programming 3 Credit Hours

CS101 Introduction to Computing 3 Credit Hours

SS110 Islamic Studies/Ethics 2 Credit Hours

MTH110 Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry 3 Credit Hours

PS105 Pakistan Studies 2 Credit Hours

TL421 RF and Mobile Networks 3 Credit Hours

TL401 Telecommunication Policies Standards and Regulations 3 Credit Hours

TL481 Voice and Data Networking in CDMA2000 3 Credit Hours

TL362 Radar System Engineering 3 Credit Hours

RADAR block diagram and operation, RADAR range equation, RADAR frequencies, applications of RADAR

RADAR Parameters:

Prediction of range performance, minimum detectable signal, receiver noise, signal to noise ratio, integration of RADAR pulses, RADAR cross section, transmitter power, antenna parameters, system losses, propagation effects, RADAR clutters.

RADAR Types:

Continuous wave (CW) and frequency modulated RADAR, MTI and pulse wave (PW) doppler RADAR, tracking RADAR.

Components of RADAR:

RADAR transmitters, RADAR antennas, receivers, displays and duplexers.

Detection of RADAR Signals in Noise:

Detection criteria, detector characteristics, performance of RADAR operator, automatic detection.

Recommended Books
  1. Introduction to RADAR Systems - Merrill Skolnik (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 0072881380 or ISBN-13: 978-0072881387)
  2. RADAR Engineering - G. S. N. Raju (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 8190694219 or ISBN-13: 978-8190694216)
TL402 Spread Spectrum Communications 3 Credit Hours
Introduction to Spread Spectrum (SS) Communications:

Concept and definitions of SS communications as compared with conventional types of communications, origin of SS communications, implementations of SS communications, spreading sequences, orthogonal and semi-orthogonal sequences.

PN sequences: pseudo-noise (PN) sequences generation and its properties (balance, run and correlation properties).

M-sequences: generation of M-sequence using shift registers (fibonacci and galois feedback generators), characteristics of M-sequence (near balance, correlation and security etc.), polynomial representation of M-sequences, gold sequences: why gold codes, generation of gold codes, finding preferred pair of M-sequences, correlation properties of gold sequences.

Orthogonal sequences: walsh codes, motivation, generation and its properties, application of walsh codes, variable length orthogonal codes (motivation, generation and properties).

Spread Spectrum Communication Systems:

Fundamental of spread spectrum:: concept of spectrum and bandwidth, definition of SS signals, types of SS signals, benefits of SS techniques.

Analysis of SS systems: direct sequence SS systems, frequency-hopped SS systems, synchronization of SS communication system (acquisition and tracking)

Application of spread spectrum: anti-jamming, ranging, multipath suppression, code-division multiple access, recent commercial applications.

CDMA systems: introduction to 2G/3G standards, CDMA 2000 systems and architecture, WCDMA system and architecture.

Recommended Books
  1. Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications - Rodger E. Ziemer, Roger L. Peterson, David E. Borth (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0024316237 or ISBN-13: 978-0024316233)
  2. Spread Spectrum Systems with Commercial Applications - Robert C. Dixon (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 8126527862 or ISBN-13: 978-8126527861)
  3. CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication - Andrew J. Viterbi (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0201633744 or ISBN-13: 978-0201633740)
TL463 Microwave Engineering 3 Credit Hours

Microwave definition, microwave frequencies, properties of microwaves.

Transmission Lines:

General description of waves on transmission line, e-waves, h-waves, group velocity, phase velocity, impedance and admittance relationship of transmission line, propagation characteristics (attenuation constant, phase constant), travelling waves and standing waves, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio).

Microwave Network Analysis:

Z and Y parameters analysis, ABCD and S representation of microwave networks, transmission lines, discontinuities and s-parameters, smith chart analyzing rules, smith chart and matching networks, wave-guide transmission line single mode propagation.

Waveguides and Microwave Antennas:

Rectangular wave-guide, problems on rectangular wave guide, cylindrical wave-guide, elliptical wave-guides, propagation characteristic wave-guide, planar circuit technology: microstrip lines and their design, microstrip coupled line filters, antenna design considerations, horn antenna, parabolic antenna, microwave lens antenna, spiral antenna, microwave tubes: high frequency limitations of conventional tubes, bunching and velocity modulation.

Microwave Transmitters and Receivers:

Principles and operation of one cavity and two cavity klystrons, multicavity klystron, travelling wave tubes, backward wave oscillator, microwave solid state devices, varactor diode, PIN diode, GUNN diode and IMPATT diode, directional couplers, power dividers, microwave mixers, theory of mixing, conversion loss, microwave link planning, introduction to MMIc’s, application and limitations.

Recommended Books
  1. Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design - Constantine A. Balanis (3rd Edition, ISBN-10: 047166782X or ISBN-13: 978-0471667827)
  2. Foundations for Microwave Engineering - Robert E. Collin (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 0070118116 or ISBN-13: 978-0070118119)
  3. Microwave Theory and Applications - Stephen F. Adam (2nd Edition, ISBN-10: 013581488X or ISBN-13: 978-0135814888)
  4. Microwave Engineering - David M. Pozar (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0470631554 or ISBN-13: 978-0470631553)
TL433 Principles of Telecommunication Traffic Engineering 3 Credit Hours

Introduction to traffic engineering from the service provider network (emphasis upon the evolution of traffic engineering, including its role in network transmission from layer 2 to IP technology and MPLS traffic engineering), review of probability theory (distributions, stochastic processes), introduction to traffic theory, tele-traffic models, classical models for voice and data traffic.

Tele-traffic Models:

Telecommunication networks, switching and routing, multiplexing and concentration, multiple access, circuit switched network modeled as a loss network, packet switched network modeled as a queuing network.

Traffic Measurements and Modeling:

Introduction, traffic measurements, traffic variations, traditional modeling of telephone traffic, traditional modeling of data traffic, novel models for data traffic, simple tele-traffic model, poisson model, erlang model, binomial model, engset model.

Performance Analysis:

Objectives and prerequisites, real-time flows and the current Internet protocols, the problem with IP, requirements for an integrated service packet network (ISPN), introduction to QoS, traffic and QoS parameters, hierarchical and administrative network structures, traffic mixes in the network, QoS parameters and their measurements: delay, jitter, data rate.

Application Types:

Introduction, elastic/in-elastic applications, interactive real-time media flows (audio, video), many-to-many communications: IP multicast (group communication using IP, multicast routing, multimedia conferencing), QoS based routing (what is QoS based routing?, addressing and metrics).

Scheduling and Queueing Management:

Introduction to queuing and scheduling, conservation law, fairness, dimensions and strategies, priorities, generalized processor sharing, simple teletraffic model, m/m/1, m/m/n, first come first serve (FCFS), round robin, weighted fair queuing, queue management and congestion control, discussions and summary.

Network QoS Support and Application Level Service Interfaces:

Introduction, intserv, resource reservation protocol (RSVP), diffserv

Traffic Management:

Introduction, traffic and congestion control in IP networks, Internet, ATM technique, service categories and traffic contract, traffic and congestion control in ATM, connection admission control (CAC) and usage parameter control (UPC), ABR flow control.

Application Level QoS Support:

Transport support of QoS: RTP/RTCP, user to network signaling, session related support: SIP/SDP, introduction to VPN

Case Study:

Develop a case study for MPLS architecture

Recommended Books
  1. ITU's Teletraffic Engineering Handbook - Villy B. Iversen (Technical University of Denmark)
  2. Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks - Thiagarajan Viswanathan (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 8120307135 or ISBN-13: 978-8120307131)
  3. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes - Athanasios Papoulis, S. Unnikrishna Pillai (4th Edition, ISBN-10: 0071226613 or ISBN-13: 978-0071226615)
  4. Probability and Random Processes: An Introduction for Applied Scientists and Engineers - Wilbur B Davenport (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0070154406 or ISBN-13: 978-0070154407)
  5. An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking: ATM Networks, the Internet, and the Telephone Network - Srinivasan Keshav (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0201634422 or ISBN-13: 978-0201634426)
  6. Quality of Service: Delivering QoS on the Internet and in Corporate Networks - Paul Ferguson, Geoff Huston (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0471243582 or ISBN-13: 978-0471243588)
  7. QoS and Traffic Management in IP and ATM Networks - David McDysan (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 0071349596 or ISBN-13: 978-0071349598)
  8. Internet QoS: Architectures and Mechanisms for Quality of Service - Zheng Wang (1st Edition, ISBN-10: 1558606084 or ISBN-13: 978-1558606081)